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          工業的能源效率Energy Efficiency for Industry [David Malka大衛·馬爾卡]

          Abstract: Given the fact that most of plants in various industries currently do not manage their energy poorly, and the fact that in the 13th Five-Year Plan, Chinese government stressed on energy structure optimization, this paper introduces a comprehensive solution to industrial plants that is aimed to improve the energy efficiency in the plants, and create savings in terms of energy for the plants.


          Key words: Energy; efficiency; management; solution


          1. Current Status of Energy Management for Industry

          1. 工業能源效率的現狀

          1.1 Problems

          1.1 問題

          Currently, most industrial plants manage their energy incorrectly. Plant owners are focusing on production, product quality, safety and environment. I definitely agree that these fields are very important, but that is not enough. In mid-sized plants, annual energy consumption may total $30-50 million and even more, which is a great deal of money. Therefore, it would be appropriate to emphasize the energy issue accordingly. Moreover, energy efficiency may improve production output, environment, product quality and safety.


          To verify the fact that the attention put to energy is currently inadequate is most plants, I would like to suggest an experiment. Ask the plant manager whether he knows or has a summarizing document indicating the amount of money paid for energy consumption in the past year and what was the consumption of all types of energy used in the past year. I can assure you that 90% of the respondents will not be able to provide such a document, which shows that energy management at the plant is deficient and requires immediate improvement. On the opposite, if you ask about the amount of production last year, you will get a quick and precise answer with all the relevant details.

          為了驗證目前大部分工廠對于能源關注不足這一事實,我有一個提議:向工廠經理提問:他是否知道去年一年他的工廠在能耗方面花了多少錢?各項能源的消耗量是多少?他是否在整理過相關的文件來總結上述能耗情況?我認為90%的經理沒有辦法拿出一份這樣的文件來,那么這就說明他們工廠的能耗管理是不足的,需要即刻整改。反之,如果你問他們去年的產量是多少, 你會得到一個快速且精確的回答,涵蓋所有相關的細節。

          1.2 Suggested Solution

          1.2 建議的解決方案

          We are aiming to improve the energy management on the site. How can we achieve this goal? To manage the energy on the site properly, we have to understand the energy consumption and how much we pay. To do this, we need a quality system to measure the total consumption or supply of energy, in order to understand the overall situation on the site. Afterwards, we would be able to examine every detail and choose the area we need to focus on.  First, we should focus on the main consumers with high energy cost and then the process begins.


          We need to examine the efficiency of large consumers by using smart tools that can help us see an even bigger picture and derive smart ideas to increase efficiency and save energy. It should be noted that the senior management must believe in the process and be committed to it, and lead it while allocating resources and evaluating performance throughout the process.


          One of our main problems is awareness to efficient work. There are many ways to raise awareness among employees, such as energy training, establishment of a performance evaluation system, which can be a software continuously displayed in the control rooms, establishment of incentives for success, as well as addition of an energy supervisor for the entire site.


          In addition, it is possible and even recommended to involve the employees in the process of evaluating performance on the site in terms of energy and efficiency, while using sophisticated tools, thus achieving the involvement and curiosity of the staff on the front line, who are also the majority – do not forget this.


          2. Technology Application in the Solution

          2. 解決方案中技術的運用

          The energy efficiency technology that we bring is based on an organized methodology, which includes the use of smart tools and involves the managers and employees of the plant, meaning that it is based on joint work.


          At first, a general data collection is needed, which means the amounts of various categories of energy that the plant purchase, such as coal, electricity, steam, water, fuels, etc. need to be metered and collected. Based on that, we then need to build a list that include how much of which kind of energy had been distributed to which consumer. After that, additional tools will be adopted to measure the energy efficiency. Next, analyses will be conducted based on the results from the tools and ideas will be generated according to the analyses. After that, we need to filter all of the ideas and finally stay with a limited number of ideas. A idea ticket will be created for each idea that passed the filtration, including information such as saving calculation, investment required, payback period, etc. Afterwards, we decide together with the plant management on when and how to implement each idea. Finally, we can build a savings plan and streamline energy efficiency for over five years. In the course of the project, we are required to build performance tests for each process, while others are built on software, while others are on control room boards, allowing all employees to be exposed to performance and even take part in their examination.


          This program is suitable for any industrial plant needing energy efficiency improvement. The benefits of the program are: raising awareness and changing energy behavior both among employees and managers. In addition, the energy status of the plant can be organized, and all the issues with energy will be also discussed. There will be a lot of ideas of improvement, some of which even without any investment. From this point on, the plant does not return to its previous state, but progresses and becomes more efficient both in awareness and behavior and in their processes.


          Furthermore, we recommend to establishment of an energy department that could initially include just one person who is solely responsible for collecting all the information. In addition, he constantly conducts performance tests according to the goals set by the plant and always thinks ahead and examines improvements and introduction of new technologies.


          3. Examples and Analysis

          3. 例子和分析

          3.1 Cost and Load Analysis

          3.1 成本與負荷分析

          As an example, we shall use an application tool called Cost and Load Analysis to examine the compressed air system at the plant.


          Prepare a table of compressors at the plant. The table should include the amount of compressors, name of each compressor, flow rate of each compressor and possible pressure of each compressor, and after measurements – the cost per compressed air unit of each compressor. In addition, prepare a list of consumers and build a long-term consumption distribution. A simple analysis will allow us to see that some compressors should be activated before the others, and we will probably find that we do not need to activate all the compressors, which will enable saving energy. This is one of many examples of using the tools.


          3.2 Losses Reflected by Unit Consumption

          3.2 單位能耗所反映出來的損失

          Another example of examining the process energy efficiency by looking into unit consumption:


          Take the most energy-intensive equipment and start to examine the energy consumption according to the manufacturer per ton of product, i.e. the technology we chose. What is the actual energy consumption per ton of product? In most cases, the actual consumption will be higher that the consumption provided by the manufacturer, and this is where the engineering work begins by examining the source of gaps, and for each gap, we should find a solution, thereby contributing to increased efficiency and energy savings.


          Many other important tools can be used to achieve maximum efficiency.


          4. Summary and Future Enlightenment

          4. 總結與未來啟示

          4.1 Summary

          4.1 總結

          The government provides grants and launches information projects aimed to present the Chinese industry with the possible value of streamlining industrial energy processes. The main reason the government focuses on energy efficiency in Chinese industry is that most of the energy is wasted due to poor management of energy and electricity consumption at plants and industrial workplaces.


          The program, which aims to streamline and economize energy cost on industrial plants in an intensive manner, is a system-wide program that lists a long list of steps arranged within a methodology that touches the entire energy chain on the site. The plan defines expected savings, expected investments and priorities. In addition, the plan presents the things that must be done and the means of implementation, while defining milestones until completion, and even performs performance tests according to the defined goals.

          該項目旨在以密集的方式精簡和節省工廠的能源成本,是一個系統性的項目,在一套方法論的指導下安排一系列步驟,這些步驟涉及到工廠的整個能源鏈。該計劃確定了預期的收益,預期投資和其他優先事項。 此外,該計劃還會提出必須做的事情和實施手段,同時還會確定整個過程的每一個里程碑直到項目完成,甚至還能根據既定目標執行能源績效考核。

          Energy efficiency saves money - it's a fact. Most of the businesses that have already entered the process did not necessarily have to do so for reasons of environmental thinking, but out of recognition of the return that investment generates in streamlining. And if it is out of the environmental reasons and can make profits, it will be an even better thing to do, too. According to previous experience, a program as such can reduce around 10% of the annual energy cost for a plant.


          4.2 Future Enlightenment

          4.2 未來啟示

          For proper energy management, the following are required:


          Commitment of the management, defining the energy policy, setting goals and objectives, conducting work procedures, reporting and training employees, testing energy efficiency of various processes and taking corrective actions, constantly updating and improving, defining the required energy indicators.


          Defining the energy indicators required at the plant, while taking into consideration the following aspects:


          ·       Reduction of environmental impacts.

          ·       減小對環境的影響。

          ·       Identification and detection of energy efficiency potential.

          ·       識別并找到能源效率提升的潛力。

          ·       Benchmarking – comparisons with similar enterprises vs. sector data.

          ·       設立標桿——和相似企業或者部門數據進行比較。

          ·       Establishment of indicators to examine energy efficiency.

          ·       建立指標來檢驗能源效率。

          Energy Efficiency Design


          ·       At the planning stage, prior to implementing any new project or installation, energy considerations should be taken into account.

          ·       在計劃設計階段,實施任何新的項目或者進行任何新的安裝之前,都需要考慮能源方面的因素。

          ·       Optimal efficiency of energy between various systems.

          ·       在各個系統之間達到能源效率最優。

          Monitoring & Measurement


          ·       Implementation of monitoring and measurement systems in order to verify savings and find new sources for efficiency.

          ·       設立監控和計量系統,核實收益,尋找新的效率提升點。

          ·       Installation of technologies that will lead to energy efficiency.

          ·       采用新的技術,進一步提升能源效率。

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